History Grade 11

 Deaf Canadian History & Politics Since 1945


This course examines the local, national, and global forces that have shaped the Deaf Canada community since 1945 and highlights the cultural, linguistic, political, social, and economic issues faced by Deaf Canadians. Students will expand their political understanding through an investigation of the Deaf community’s efforts in areas such as social justice and human rights. Students will develop their skills in historical research, analysis, and communication to deepen their historical and political awareness and present their own points of view.Note: The emerging struggle of the linguistic and cultural identities of Deaf individuals and mainstream society has generated years of social and political conflict. The evolution of Deaf education and the Deaf community along with the emergence of empirical research on language (ASL/ LSQ), Deaf culture, Deaf history, and the Deaf community played a pivotal role in the formation of divergent opinions leading to linguistic and cultural struggle. It is vital to begin with a comprehensive overview of Deaf history and politics from 1945 to the present to highlight the internal and external influences on the social, political, cultural and linguistic movements of the Deaf community. This presents an opportunity for students to explore and identify the crucial influences that shaped the trends of Deaf education and the community.

Reference: For a list of links, please click on “Deaf History References”.
Overall Expectations

Education: 1945 to Present
By the end of this course, students will:

• analyse Deaf education trends since 1945;
• assess the role of Deaf Canadians in promoting Deaf education on different levels;
• explain how Canada’s economic and social forces have affected Deaf education movements since 1945;
• describe the influence of technological advancements on Deaf education;Modern Deaf Canadian Society
By the end of this course, students will:
• assess key ways in which the Deaf community has changed since 1945;
• analyse and identify continuing issues, concerns, and strengths in the  Deaf community since 1945;
• describe the evolution of modern Deaf Canadian society;

Chronology and Cause and Effect
By the end of this course, students will:

• demonstrate an ability to use the organizing concepts of chronology and cause and effect in the study of Deaf history;
• assess how effectively Deaf individuals and the community have dealt with challenges and influenced society;
• explain the importance of active citizenship and respect for Deaf heritage in the everyday lives of Deaf Canadians;
• evaluate how well modern Canada fits the description of an open, equitable, democratic society;

Methods of Historical Inquiry and Communication
By the end of this course, students will:
• formulate questions on topics and issues in the history of  Deaf Canadians since 1945, and use appropriate methods of historical research to locate, gather, evaluate, and organize relevant information from a variety of sources;
• use methods of historical inquiry to locate, gather, evaluate, and organize research materials from a variety of sources.

Specific Expectations

Deaf Education: Changing Trends
By the end of this course, students will:

• compare and contrast Deaf education trends from the early years and present (e.g., provincial Deaf schools to mainstream programs, shifts in Deaf education philosophy, closing down of provincial Deaf schools, increasing numbers of Deaf teachers and administrators)
• elaborate on Deaf Canadians’ advocacy for bilingual and bicultural education (e.g., the bilingual Deaf education movement, proliferation of empirical research, Bill 4, international influences, Deaf Ontario Now rallies);
• compare the experiences of Deaf students in a variety of educational settings (e.g., provincial Deaf schools, Deaf self-contained classrooms, mainstreamed settings with interpreters, and mainstreamed settings without interpreters);

Social Justice
By the end of this course, students will:

• assess the impact of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms on personal and cultural relations in Canada (e.g., linguistic and educational rights for minority groups);
• assess the contributions of selected Deaf Canadian political leaders since 1945 (e.g., David Peikoff, Henry Vlug and Gary Malkowski)
• summarize the major issues and events that have led to an expansion of equity legislation and programs (Sign Language recognition, Deaf drivers rights, Deaf rights in employment, voting rights, Deaf Ontario Now, legal cases regarding communication access in the 1980’s to current day (eg Eldridge Case, Saskatchewan SPARC Case, Ontario Grade 10 Literacy Testing Case, etc.
• assess the effectiveness of the programs, individuals and methods of various interest groups in Canada in influencing public policy (e.g., Canadian Association of the Deaf, David Peikoff, Henry Vlug, Gary Malkowski)

Deaf Canada in the World Community
By the end of this course, students will:

• describe Deaf Canadian organizations and associations’ participation in international conferences, events, agreements and structure (e.g., World Deaflympic Games, World Federation of the Deaf, International Sign Language Rally, Deaf History International);
• describe the participation and achievement of Deaf Canadians on an international level (e.g., Edward Marshall Wick, Jo-Anne Robinson, Len Mitchell);

Change in Deaf Canadian Society
By the end of this course, students will:
• describe key developments in Deaf Canadian history since World War II that specifically relate to the proliferation of current associations & organizations (e.g., the Canadian Association of the Deaf in the 1940’s, Canadian Deaf Sports Association in the 1960’s and the Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf in 1973);
• describe the major ongoing issues regarding Deaf Canada’s local, provincial and national communities (e.g., language rights vis a vis cochlear implantation, mainstreaming without interpreters, social rights and equity in educational autonomy)
• explain the difficulties in resolving issues of identity, collaboration and autonomy involving the  Deaf community (e.g., different Deaf experiences, mainstream vs. Deaf schools, monolingual vs bilingual education, alternative organizations such as VOICE For Hearing Impaired Children, Canadian Hard of Hearing Association, Canadian Association of the Deaf, Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, Canadian Deaf Youth Leadership);

Working Canadians
By the end of this course, students will:

• describe the spread of professional associations working with and/or for the Deaf community since 1945 (e.g., the Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada)
• assess the advantages and disadvantages of technological advancement for Deaf Canadian employees and other Deaf Canadian citizens;
• describe and analyse issues surrounding the establishment and the interrelationship of different levels of associations, organizations, programs & services that serve the Deaf Canadian community (e.g., how they are related to each other and their citizenship roles and responsibilities) ;
• describe opportunities for Deaf individual and group artistic expression that have emerged in Canada since 1945 (e.g., Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, National Festival of the Arts, Defty Award, Deaf Canada Conference, Miss Deaf Canada Pageant, Théâtre Visuel des Sourds, Canadian Theatre of the Deaf, Deaf Culture Centre);
• identify and describe continuing efforts by Deaf Canadian groups and individuals to promote equity and multiculturalism since 1945 (e.g., Canadian Association of the Deaf, Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, David Peikoff, Forrest Nickerson, David G. Mason, Ronald Fee, Charmaine Letourneau, Gary Malkowski);
• describe developments in Canada’s sources of Deaf culture & community resources since 1945 (e.g., Canadian Association of the Deaf, Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, Canadian Deaf Sport Association, etc.);

By the end of this course, students will:
• formulate different types of questions (e.g., factual: What were the elements of the shift in the Deaf education? causal: What were the causes of educational shifts?; comparative: Contrast the patterns of Deaf education in different decades since 1945?; speculative: What would be some of the consequences of  innovative technological changes?) when researching historical topics, issues, and events;
• gather information on Deaf Canadian history and current events from a variety of sources (e.g., textbooks and reference books, newspapers, interviews, the Internet) found in various locations (e.g., school libraries, resource centres, Deaf Culture Centre, museums, historic sites, community and government resources);
• distinguish between primary and secondary sources of information (e.g., primary: diaries, documents; secondary: textbooks, television documentaries), and use both in historical research;
• evaluate the credibility of sources and information (e.g., by considering the authority, expertise of the source and checking the information for accuracy, underlying assumptions, stereotypes, prejudice, and bias);
• organize and record information gathered through research (e.g., using notes, lists, concept webs, timelines, charts, maps, graphs, mind maps);
• formulate and use a thesis statement when researching a historical topic or issue;

Interpretation and Analysis
By the end of this course, students will:

• analyse information, employing concepts and theories appropriate to historical inquiry (e.g., chronology, cause and effect, short- and long-term consequences);
• identify different viewpoints and explicit biases when interpreting information for research or when participating in a discussion;
• draw conclusions and make reasoned generalizations or appropriate predictions on the basis of relevant and sufficient supporting evidence;

By the end of this course, students will:

• express ideas, arguments, and conclusions, as appropriate for the audience and purpose, using a variety of styles and forms (e.g., reports, essays, debates, role playing, group presentations);
• use an accepted form of documentation (e.g., footnotes, endnotes, or author-date citations; bibliographies or reference lists) to acknowledge all sources of information, including electronic sources;
• use appropriate terminology to communicate results of inquiries into historical topics and issues.

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